the waterfall model was the first process model to be introduced. in a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. this means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. in this waterfall model, the phases do not overlap. in “the waterfall” approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. system design − the requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and the system design is prepared. implementation − with inputs from the system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. integration and testing − all the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. deployment of system − once the functional and non-functional testing is done; the product is deployed in the customer environment or released into the market.
maintenance − there are some issues which come up in the client environment. maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment. all these phases are cascaded to each other in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases. every software developed is different and requires a suitable sdlc approach to be followed based on the internal and external factors. some situations where the use of waterfall model is most appropriate are − the advantages of waterfall development are that it allows for departmentalization and control. each phase of development proceeds in strict order. the disadvantage of waterfall development is that it does not allow much reflection or revision. not suitable for the projects where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing. integration is done as a “big-bang.
if this is not something you’ve worked with before, a definition of development methodology is in order; put very simply, it’s a way of organizing the work of software development. this is not about a style of project management or a specific technical approach, although you will often hear these terms all thrown together or used interchangeably. having been involved in software development projects for a long time, here are my thoughts on the strengths and weaknesses of each. there is also typically a stage gate between each; for example, requirements must be reviewed and approved by the customer before design can begin. this approach emphasizes the rapid delivery of an application in complete functional components. if all planned work for the sprint cannot be completed, work is reprioritized and the information is used for future sprint planning.
agile relies on a very high level of customer involvement throughout the project, but especially during these reviews. first, we change the game a little (which is what most software development organizations do) by defining our own process. our modifications include use of prototyping where possible to provide the customer a better view of their finished product early in the design/development cycle. after the primary framework of the application is completed per high level requirements, we continue to develop and also to reach out to the customer for refinement of requirements. although we are starting to see mass adoption of various agile methodologies in the enterprise (even dod and federal agencies), there are still many organizations that are slow to make the change. it is also very common for organization to transition into more of a hybrid agile approach that combines aspect of both agile and waterfall. the project management institute (pmi) that developed the project management body of knowledge (pmbok) guide collaborated with the agile alliance to bundle the two guides in one offering to help organizations, managers and leadership increase agility in the development process.
in software development, it tends to be among the less iterative and flexible approaches, as progress flows in it is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. it is very simple to understand and use. in a developers and customers agree on what will be delivered early in the development lifecycle., . the waterfall model is a breakdown of project activities into linear sequential phases, where each phase depends on the deliverables of the previous one and corresponds to a specialization of tasks. the approach is typical for certain areas of engineering design.
waterfall model is a sequential model that divides software development into pre-defined the waterfall model is a sequential design process in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, production/implementation, and maintenance. sources differ when it comes to the specific steps in the waterfall process ( jonasson, 2008), and i will detail some,
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