the waterfall model was the first process model to be introduced. in a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. this means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. in this waterfall model, the phases do not overlap. in this waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase sequentially. system design − the requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and the system design is prepared. implementation − with inputs from the system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. integration and testing − all the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. deployment of system − once the functional and non-functional testing is done; the product is deployed in the customer environment or released into the market.
maintenance − there are some issues which come up in the client environment. maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment. all these phases are cascaded to each other in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases. every software developed is different and requires a suitable sdlc approach to be followed based on the internal and external factors. some situations where the use of waterfall model is most appropriate are − the advantages of waterfall development are that it allows for departmentalization and control. each phase of development proceeds in strict order. the disadvantage of waterfall development is that it does not allow much reflection or revision. not suitable for the projects where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing. integration is done as a “big-bang.
the main objective of this phase is requirements determination.this is the most important phase in the sdlc as the goal is to understand the requirements of the new system and to develop a system that addresses these requirements. from this we get a statement of what the system must do and the characteristics the system must have. functional requirements are concerned with system services such as the scope of the system, the necessary business functions and the required data structures.
to ascertain the requirements involved we can use traditional methods such as interviewing the users, observation and study of documents and software systems. more modern methods of gathering requirements include prototyping which is where there is a preliminary model of the project from which later models are developed. joint application design which is a structured group process focused on determining requirements, this involves the project team, users and managers working together. at the end of this phase there will be a requirements document which include the purpose and scope of the project, the stakeholders involved, function and data requirements, system constraints and project matters.
waterfall model – design requirement gathering and analysis − all possible requirements of the system to be today we look at phase 2 of the waterfall model, the analysis phase. the main objective of this phase the waterfall model is a breakdown of project activities into linear like a waterfall) through the phases of conception,, phases of waterfall model, phases of waterfall model, iterative model, agile model, waterfall model example. analysis. the product development team analyzes the requirements, and fully understands the problems. this is a research phase that includes no building. the team attempts to ask all the questions and secure all the answers they need to build the product requirement.
in “the waterfall” approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. the waterfall approach to systems analysis and design wass the first established modern approach to building a requirements gathering and analysis. in this phase the, spiral model, explain waterfall model with example, waterfall model advantages and disadvantages, waterfall model pdf
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